Sacco and Vanzetti (1959-64; 1978-2003)
3-act opera begun by Marc Blitzstein (1904-1964),
libretto based on letters, transcripts, etc., re 2 Italian immigrant anarchists,
their arrest, trial & execution in Massachusetts for crimes they did not commit;
commissioned by Ford Foundation,
optioned by Metropolitan Opera, originally for Jan. 1963.
Completion by Leonard J. Lehrman:
vocal score: 2/78-2/10/01; orchestration: 10/24/03
[Libretto of II:1, 2, end of 3, 4; III:1; III:3 Pts 1, 3-4; III: 5-6 compl. 2000]
Publisher: Theodore Presser.
Completion dedicated to Robert M. Palmer
[who met with & advised both MB & LJL on the opera]
Tenor (Sacco), baritone (Vanzetti)
+ min. SSAATTBB + 2-3 Actors (covering 36 roles)
Orch: 2(poiPicc)-1-EH-2(poiEbCl,ASax,TSax)-2(poiCbn) 2-2-2(poiTuba)
Pno/Cel Acc(opt.), 3Perc [+Siren]:
(Vibr,Xyl,Marimba,Chimes,Crotales,2Tri,SusCym,Cowbell,CrCym,2Gongs,
Tamtam,Tamb,Whip,Claves,WB,Ratchet,3Timp,4Tomtoms,BD,HH,2SnDr,TmplBlks) Str

Act I
Sc. 1 Chorus ("This is the end of the opera. After this it begins.")
new version based on composite of several drafts
Sc. 2 5/5/20 #1 Italian Scene (rhrsl of Henrik Ibsen's play A Doll's House in Italian);
#2 Vanzetti's First Aria [2d half, thru end of scene, compl. 1999; slightly revised on advice of Jack Beeson,
incl. reference to II:3 Pt 12 Trio & Idiots First Sc. 3].
Sc. 3 Garage [only complete scene compl. by MB].
Sc. 4 Chorus [cut, 2001] [based on Massachusetts Constitution and Cella Resolution hearings].
Interlude.
Sc. 5 Interrogation (incl. Pt 2 Katzmann's Monologue)
[mostly completed 1999, based in part on music of abandoned 8/61 Fountain Scene].
Interlude [completed 1999].
Sc. 6 5/8/20 Prison [mostly completed 1999,
based in part on "Thank You" and "Have Yourself A Night" from Reuben Reuben]
#1 Sacco-Vanzetti Duet;
#2 Quartet Finale (Mrs. Evans, McInerney, Sacco, Vanzetti).

Act II
Sc. 1 5/30/21 Memorial Day Parade [compl. 2000;
music based on MB's setting of Alfred Hayes' "Into the Streets May First"].
Sc. 2 5/31/21 Court [compl. 2000; music quotes "Dies Irae,"
The Cradle Will Rock, Sc.3 & 4, and "Lied" (personifying Attorney Fred Moore)].
Sc. 3 Prison [mostly compl. 2000; includes Vanzetti letter in terza rima, interspersed, Pts 2,4,6&8];
Pt 5 Sacco to Mrs. Evans (based on "Be With Me" from Reuben Reuben);
[Pt 6 cut, 2001.]
Pt 7 Mrs. Evans' Aria (based on "Such A Little While" from Reuben Reuben);
Pt 10 Pantomime;
Pt 11 Sacco-Rosa Duet [ending, 2000, derived from "Love at First Word" from Reuben Reuben]
Pt 12 Torremaggiore-Villafalletto Trio [compl. 2000; based on "The Hills of Amalfi" from Reuben Reuben].
Sc. 4 7/1921 Court [compl. 2000;
music quotes 2 Harvard songs ("Fair Harvard" & "10,000 Men of Harvard"), "Lied" (for Atty Moore),
"Have Yourself A Night" from Reuben Reuben]. (Several passages cut, 2001.)
Interlude [2000; derived from "Have Yourself A Night" from Reuben Reuben].
Sc. 5 Prison
Pt 1 [2000; music based on Circus Theme & "Such A Little While" from Reuben Reuben,
"Few Little English," "when life is quite through" (Cummings cycle[s] #2)]
Pt 2 [2000; music based on "Sleep" and "Be With Me" from Reuben Reuben]
Pt 3 The Whole Shoe (Sacco) [sketches compl., 2000,
incl. homage to Leonard Bernstein ("There is a garden"
& Abel Meeropol-Earl Robinson "The house I live in"]
Pt 4 With a Woman to Be (Sacco)
[developed by MB from brief tenor solo in Act I Sc. 5 of Reuben Reuben].
Pt 5 11/18/25 Sacco's Mad Scene (Sacco, Vanzetti, Chorus)
[ending compl. 2000, based on "silent unday by silently not night" (Cummings #4)
& (Madeiros) on Portuguese folksong: "Emilia," mm. 9-12, phrygian section,
in Folk Songs of the World, ed. Charles Haywood, NY: John Day, Amsco, 1966, p. 165].

Act III
Prelude based on I:5-6 Interlude & I:5 Fugue ("There is no case.")
Sc. 1 9/13-17/26 Thompson's Speech [compl. 2001].
Sc. 2 9/1926 Vanzetti's Books [mostly compl. 2001,
based on "Never Get Lost" & "Upstairsy" from Reuben Reuben].
Sc. 3 4/1927 Court [mostly compl. 2001, based on earlier themes and The Condemned Sc. 2].
Sc. 4 5/12/27 Prison Yard
Pt 1 Stong [2001; music based on "Thank You" & "Monday Morning Blues" from Reuben Reuben];
Pt 2 Vanzetti's Last Statement [accomp. compl., 1995]
Sc. 5 7-8/27 [compl. 2001]
Pt 1 Governor Fuller [melodrama, underscored by III:4 Pt 2];
Pt 2 Fuller, Madeiros, Committee [reprises earlier themes, incl. Act I Finale]
Pt 3 Thompson's Plea [music based on "open your heart" (Cummings #7)];
Pt 4 Mary Donovan's Aria [music derived from "Love at First Word" from Reuben Reuben and "Hymn" from Juno];
Pt 5 Mary Donovan & Police [music derived in part from I:2 Aria & The Condemned Sc.2];
Pt 6 Thompson & Committee [music derived in part from Pt4 Aria & The Condemned Sc.2].
Sc. 6 8/27 [compl. 2001]
Pt 1 Thompson & Vanzetti [music reprises III:4 Pt 2, I:6, II:3 Pt 12];
Pt 2 Chorus [poem by Jim Seymour (P.D.); music based on MB's "Let's Be Blue"];
Pt 3 Mrs. Evans [music based on II:3 Pt 7];
Pt 4 8/23/27 Last Words [quotes Lehrman's Rosenberg Cantata: We Are Innocent];
Pt 5 7/19/77 Gov. Michael S. Dukakis' Exoneration [underscored by III:4 Pt 2];
Pt 6 Final Chorus [reprise of I:1].